The Social security system in Tanzania has a relatively broad net and includes those employed in the private and government sector, organised cooperatives and self-employed persons. However, social security schemes are largely limited to those people employed in the public and private formal sectors, who represent only a fraction of the population. There are several different schemes to cover these sectors, such as the National Social Security Fund, the Parastatal Pension Fund, the National Health Insurance Scheme and the Public Service Pension Fund.
KwaWazee Project is a cash transfer programme that targets poor and vulnerable people over the age of 60, including those caring for children without parents. Each household receives a monthly grant of TZS6,000 (about USD4.47) with an additional monthly grant of TZS3,000 for every child. It has started with a very small number of beneficiaries and by 2007 nearly 600 older people were receiving a regular monthly pension. There is no conditionality involved and, broadly speaking, it aims to reduce the vulnerability of chronically poor households, and combat the malnutrition of children.
Another cash transfer programme, the Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer Pilot is being implemented by the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF). TASAF is one of the tools for executing the Government’s National Poverty Reduction Strategy. This pilot project aims to reach the most vulnerable elderly and children, such as those living in child-headed households, orphans and chronically ill children, the very poor or the very sick elderly without a caregiver. Beneficiary households receive their cash benefits every two months, ranging from a minimum of USD12 to a maximum of USD36.
The Tanzanian government refers to social protection in the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty as the fulfilment of human rights.